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Murder 2 full Movie

Its a tale of a woman who has been physically abused, deserted by her fiancee and whose kid dies young. The impact of all these incidents turn her into psychotic killer call girl. With a vengence, her sole purpose is to turn the tables on men, so she kills everyone she sleeps with leaving a mark of swastika on the person's forehead. There are some subtle references to the schizophrenic state of her throughout the movie. How she gets tracked down by the cops is what the movie's about. On the whole, Murder 2 has a good dose of titillations and a good story.

"Kun Faaya Kun Rockstar" (Official full video) "Ranbir Kapoor"

'Kun Faaya Kun' the latest song from the one of the most exciting movies Rockstar. In this movie Ranbir Kapoor has shed his boy next door image and we believe this is his best work done so far. This song is sung by Mohit Chauhan, Javed Ali, A R Rahman whereas lyrics are penned down by Irshaad Kamil

Rockstar Hindi Promo Song Tum Ho

Rock star full song tum ho

Phir Se Ud Chala - Rockstar (Full Song HD) Ft.Ranbir Kapoor, Nargis Fakh...

Phir Se Ud Chala - Rockstar (Full Song HD) Ft.Ranbir Kapoor, Nargis Fakhri & Shammi KapoorPhir Se Ud Chala - Rockstar (Full Song HD) Ft.Ranbir Kapoor, Nargis Fakhri & Shammi KapoorPhir Se Ud Chala - Rockstar (Full Song HD) Ft.Ranbir Kapoor, Nargis Fakhri & Shammi KapoorPhir Se Ud Chala - Rockstar (Full Song HD) Ft.Ranbir Kapoor, Nargis Fakhri & Shammi KapoorPhir Se Ud Chala - Rockstar (Full Song HD) Ft.Ranbir Kapoor, Nargis Fakhri & Shammi KapoorPhir Se Ud Chala - Rockstar (Full Song HD) Ft.Ranbir Kapoor, Nargis Fakhri & Shammi KapoorPhir Se Ud Chala - Rockstar (Full Song HD) Ft.Ranbir Kapoor, Nargis Fakhri & Shammi KapoorPhir Se Ud Chala - Rockstar (Full Song HD) Ft.Ranbir Kapoor, Nargis Fakhri & Shammi KapoorPhir Se Ud Chala - Rockstar (Full Song HD) Ft.Ranbir Kapoor, Nargis Fakhri & Shammi KapoorPhir Se Ud Chala - Rockstar (Full Song HD) Ft.Ranbir Kapoor, Nargis Fakhri & Shammi KapoorPhir Se Ud Chala - Rockstar (Full Song HD) Ft.Ranbir Kapoor, Nargis Fakhri & Shammi KapoorPhir Se Ud Chala - Rockstar (Full Song HD) Ft.Ranbir Kapoor, Nargis Fakhri & Shammi KapoorPhir Se Ud Chala - Rockstar (Full Song HD) Ft.Ranbir Kapoor, Nargis Fakhri & Shammi KapoorPhir Se Ud Chala - Rockstar (Full Song HD) Ft.Ranbir Kapoor, Nargis Fakhri & Shammi Kapoor

Aarakshan 2011-Hindi Full Movie



Amitabh Bachchan … Prabhakar Anand
Saif Ali Khan … Deepak Kumar
Manoj Bajpai … Mithilesh Singh (as Manoj Bajpayee)
Prateik … Sushant Seth
Saurabh Shukla … Mantri Baburao
Darshan Jariwala … Anirudh Chaudhary
Yashpal Sharma … Shambhu Yadav
Mukesh Tiwari … Police Inspector
S.M. Zaheer … Retired Professor
Chetan Pandit
Vinay Apte … Neta Bhishamber
Anita Kanwar … Mrs. Kantaprasad
Hema Malini … Shakuntala
Tanvi Azmi … Prabhakar Anand’s Wife / Poorbi’s Mom
Deepika Padukone … Poorbi Anand


Prakash Jha


Not A Love Story ( 2011) 1CD MC PDRip -Xvid - Mp3 -Team ICTv

Watch here full indian latest movie Not a love story

Top Lyrics of Aye Khuda 2011

Song Details:-
Song Name: Aye Khuda
Film/Album: Murder 2
Singer(s): Kshitij Tarey, Saim, Mithoon
Music Director: Mithoon
Lyricist: Mithoon
Length: 6:52
Music Label: T-Series

Lyrics of Aye Khuda

Kaisi khala yeh dil mein basi hai
Ab toh khataayein fitrat hi si hai
Main hi hoon woh jo rehmat se gira
Aye khuda, gir gaya, gir gaya
Main jo tujhse door hua
Lutt gaya, lutt gaya
Aye khuda, gir gaya, gir gaya
Main jo tujhse door hua

Hitler's reaction on the Aamir Liaquat Video

This is how Hitler reacts to the Aamir Liaquat video

The real face of Aamir Liaquat has been exposed. Watch the video that we have shared in order to witness one of the most deceitful people in Pakistan's history.
We need to bring this person down and boycott GEO Television if the need arises.

Aamir Liaquat Cursing, Abusing & Insulting people backstage. This is why MQM expelled him. Amir Liaquat shows his true side by using language which he says is not fit for use in actual life.

So the true or real face of Mr. Hussain was finally exposed. The footage here exposes him as a ''munafiq'' or a hypocrite. Sitting on his seat the so called esteemed naat khawan and cleric curses his media crew by using profanities and sings Indian songs in the presence of religious clerics or maulvis and even asks them about Bollywood movies.

He then goes on and barely maintians his laughter when someone asks him and a cleric a sexual question. The moment the camera cuts off the Dr. Liaquat is seen laughing hysterically when the cleric calls it a very nazuk(delicate) situation.

Now when you see his face on t.v what will you think about this man. A Fake, a hypocrite, or an actor ?

Student Loan Consolidation Programs-Consolidate Student Loan 2011

student loan consolidation programs
Student Loan Consolidation Programs-Consolidate Student Loan Discover A Free Site That Shows You How You Can Get Your Next Student Loan Absolutely Free! There Is Nothing To Buy!
Do NOT Get Your Next Student Loan Without First Reading This Sites Free Information - It Will Save You $1000'

Jobs in pakistan air force direct commission 2011.
Eligibility:f.s.c 60% Marks
Age Limit:16-22 year
gender:Pakistani citizen Male and female both apply
Online Registration: http://www.joinpaf.gov.pk

Adobe Photoshop - Professional latest Make Up 2011

Learn adobe photoshop Tips
This is a demo about some tools in Adobe Photoshop.
So i use this tools to create a tutorial video about professional make up.
You can find the brushes i use in this tutorial by
Searching on Google for : "photoshop eyelashes brushes"


Air crash In the comores island caused by hijackers

This plane was hijacked by none musilims and because the victims were only black africans no one ever hear the story again. after the day of this tragedy which took place in the comoros island in 1996, May god blessed those innocent people.

I Love You Full Video Song - Bodyguard (2011) - Salman Khan Kareena Kapo...

Song : I Love You
Movie : Bodyguard
Singer : Ash King, Clinton Cerejo
Music Director : Pritam
Lyricist : Neelesh Misra
Artists : Salman Khan, Kareena Kapoor

Singers : Ash King, Clinton Cerejo
Music Music : Pritam Chakraborty

Lyrics of I Love You:
Lyricist : Neelesh Misra

Dil ka yeh kya raaz hai..
Jaane kya kar gaye..
Jaise andhero main tum chaandni bhar gaye..
Kare chaand taaron ko mashoor itna kyun..

Kambakht insey bhi khoobsoorat hai tu..I love you .. Tu ru ru.. Unn%/aru..
Yeah yeh yeh..

Bodyguard Salman Song "Tera Naam"

No one has the stardom that Salman has. His movies become hit because of him. He doesn't work for brands. Salman is the ultimate star in Bollywood. Original, what ever he can, he does and he says it straightforward not like diplomatic SRK who is always insecure and jealous of Salman. SALMAN COMPLETELY ROCKS
01 -- Body Guard - Salman Khan (3:41)
02 -- I Love You -- Ash King & Clinton Cerejo (4:2)
03 -- Desi Beat - Mika Singh & Amrita Kak (4:12)
04 -- Teri Meri - Rahat Fateh Ali Khan & Shreya Ghoshal (5:38)
05 -- Desi Beat (Remix) -- Mika Singh, Amrita Kak (3:48)

Amaizing picture of pink dotes

Click on the image and see the magic.
An amaizing pic.how our brain works.
there is no green dotes in the picture but when
you see the moving pink dots it will replace automaticaly
with green dotes.it is an amaizing funny picture
its Very painful, but still super cool to watch!

Spider Man Part I This is a funny comedy short film on spider man

This is a funny comedy short film on spider man

please watch it , rate it , comment on it , it will all be appreciated ..!

Zardari Talk With Shah Abdullah Funny

Zardari Talk With Shah Abdullah Funny.
funny hasb e haal 2011/07/25.new episode

Abdur Raheem Green Talks About The Bid'ah and Shirk In Pakistan Very Fu...

Funny bush and musharaf cartoon.

Pakistani Funny Video Musharraf was the only man who knew how keep out the corrupt paki's. Pakistan has no future i'm afraid with th present Zadari family

Lyrics of Phir muhabbat krney chala hai tu.

Lyrics of Phir muhabbat krney chala hai tu.

Jab jab tere paas main aaya
Ik sukoon mila..
Jise main tha bhoolta aaya
Woh wajood mila..
Jab aaye mausam gham ke
Tujhe yaad kiya

Jab sehme tanhapan se
Tujhe yaad kiya

Hmm.. dil..
Sambhal ja zara
Phir mohabbat
Karne chala hai tu
Dil.. yahin ruk jaa zara
Phir mohabbat
Karne chala hai tu

Aisa kyun kar hua
Janu naa
Main janu naa

Dil.. sambhal ja zara
Phir mohabbat
Karne chala hai tu
Dil.. yahin ruk jaa zara
Phir mohabbat
Karne chala hai tu

Jis raah pe
Hai ghar tera
Aksar wahan se
Haan main hoon guzra
shayad yahi
Dil mein raha
Tu mujh ko mil jaye
Kya pata�

Kya hai yeh silsala
Janu naa
Main janu naa

Dil.. sambhal ja zara
Phir mohabbat
Karne chala hai tu
Dil.. yahin ruk jaa zara
Phir mohabbat
Karne chala hai tu

Kuch bhi nahi
Jab darmiyan
Phir kyun hai dil
Tere hi khwaab bunta
Chaha ki de
Tujhko bhula
Par yeh bhi mumkin
Ho na sakaa.. a�a�aaaa�.

Kya hai yeh maamla
Janu naa
Main janu naa..

Dil.. sambhal ja zara
Phir mohabbat
Karne chala hai tu
Dil.. yahin ruk jaa zara
Phir mohabbat
Karne chala hai tu

Dil.. sambhal ja zara
Phir mohabbat
Karne chala hai tu

Funny latest picture jokes 2011

Girl sad to boy in urdu "btao ab kisi larki ki traf dekho ge?"
Boy:ufffffffffff choro
Top 14 indian heros and stars with powerful bodies.
3.Emraan hashmi
4.imran khan
5.john ibraham
6.Ranbir kapoor
7.Salman khan
8.Amir khan
9.Shahid kapoor

Phir Mohabbat - Full Song [HD] - Murder 2 (2011) Ft. Emraan Hashmi, Jacq...

New movie Murder 2 by Emrann hashmi.
best song of this movie is "phir muhabbat".
Click here to download.
Info: director  make an idea to make Murder 3 after good busniss of murder 2
and performance of Emraan hashmi.

Funny Punjabi Badsha Akbar Ali Cartoon Story 1

Funny faisalabadi cartoon.
Azizi producation.
Latest funny cartoon 2011.
funny punjabi cartoon badshah salamat.

"Mere Brother Ki Dulhan" - Theatrical Trailer

New movie of Ali zafar.Mere brother ki dulhania. "Mere Brother Ki Dulhan" - Theatrical Trailer new comedy movie by ali zafar,Imran khan and ketrina kaif. realeased on 9 september 2011.

Funny politic pictures

 funny urdu picture.share this pictures on fb and twitter and help us.
Wo konsa aisa kam hai jo a k ghar wale bolain our ap khushi khushi kr dete hon.
This picture is made by fffmaza.

funney ad to saving petrol.
Avoid girlfriends it saves 90% of petrol.
alwas be serious and save oil and petrol.
Pakistan need it badly.You can do it for our country.

Ohhhhhh shame to You and on your character.
Corrupt man.
its our politicians.
funney politicians.
funny politician pictures.
Latest pictures of funny politician pictures 2011.

Quote od the day for f.b shareing

Quote ***kisi ko uski zaat or puraney libas ki waja se haqeer na samjhna """q k""" Tujhe deny wala or usay deny wala Aik hi hai.***

▄ █ ▄ █ ▄New Sad Song 2011 - Rahat Fateh Ali Khan.▄ █ ▄ █ ▄ Amjad Rana.

free Download Latest Rahat fteh ali khan song Chain aye na.
chain aye na with poetry.

Rahat fateh ali khan NEW SONG charha de rang 2011

Raht fteh ali khan new song of yamla pagla dewana.
movie by Sunny Deol and boby deol.
Rahat fteh ali khan great singer. Popular singer of
the world.Actually Rahat is a pakistani singer but most
popular in india.

Ishq (Rahat Fateh Ali Khan New Song 2011) MH NEWS FORT ABBAS.mp4

Ishq (Rahat Fateh Ali Khan New Song 2011) MH NEWS FORT ABBAS
Signing up to http://www.Infolinks.com takes only seconds. All you need to do is fill out the form, no commitment or fees involved, and start linking text to revenue. Follow these quick and easy steps to Join Infolinks now: •Complete our brief sign up form. •Our team will review your application within 48 hours. •Upon approval you will be able to integrate the Infolinks script into your web pages. •Start earning revenue every time your website visitors click on In-Text advertisements. •Login to your Publisher account on our Member Center to track your revenue

Earning through Infolinks

Infolinks is a great way to make money online and it is one of the most internet money making ideas and an alternative to Google Adsense as well.
What is infolinks?
Infolinks is an In-text advertising means it inserts hyperlinks to your website content and when someone clicks on that link you will get share(Revenue).So,It is a great way to make money online ,All you need is to add the code to your website that they give it to you and it automatically inserts ads to your website.If you do blogging on wordpress platform than they have developed a plugin ,check that.
Who can participate in Infolinks publisher program?
If you have website than go and apply for it ,they are accepting almost every website .They will put your website in review for 2 or 3 days and it will get accepted.So,No problem in that.
infolinks How to earn money through Infolinks?
Why Infolinks?
This question comes in Mind ,why you join infolinks when you have so many other advertising companies for you like Kontera is the biggest competitor of infolinks.There are reasons for that :
  • They share 70% revenue with you.I think it is highest in the industry.
  • Whatever your site topic is you can get the targeted ads to your website.As,They have so many advertisers on Infolinks.
  • There are so many big websites using that like johnchow.com so It proves that they are legitimate and pays timely.
What is the payout?
Now,They have 50$ payout ,you will get your money once it reaches 50$.previously it was 100$ and they decreased it for the benefit of publishers.
Payment methods
They pay via payoneer,paypal but for bank wire transfer it is 400$.So,you can withdraw it by different means.
If you really thinking making money online through infolinks on your blog .It is a good start.

Make Money With Google Adsense

Make Money With Google Adsense

Google Adsense, the most popular contextual advertising service on the internet, can make money for anyone. Learning some simple tricks and techniques can explode your income even more.

Things you Need:
  1. Make a Website or A Blog
  2. Signup for a Google Adsense account
  3. Spend some time working and advertising you website blog or script whatever it may be.
  1. Create a website or blog to put Google Adsense on. Your website should focus on a particular niche or keyword and be optimized for search engine traffic.

  2. Sign up for a Google Adsense account. This is free and easy. After signing up, you have access to all the possible ad blocs and links necessary to make money with Adsense.

  3. Insert the code for a Google Adsense ad block or link into your website or blog. This ad block should be above the fold. That means it should be visible on your blog or site without scrolling down. The colors should match your website. You can use up to three Google Adsense ad blocks per website or blog.

  4. Get traffic to your website. Making money with Google Adsense is all about getting traffic. The more traffic you receive, the more people will click on the Adsense ads and the more money you will make.

  5. Wait and continue building. You cannot build a website and leave it alone and expect to make money from Google Adsense. Keep adding keyword specific content, link building, and advertising. As your site and counter numbers grow, so will your Google Adsense account.

best trick of make money online 2011

Tips of make money online with youtube

1.now you can make money with you tube.
first create an account with youtube
and create a youtube chanel.

2.create google ads account and place
google ads in your youtube chanel.
coming soooooooooon...........

Captain Bilal Zafar Shaheed

Historey an types of adsense


Oingo, Inc., a privately held company located in Los Angeles, was started in 1998 by Gilad Elbaz and Adam Weissman. Oingo developed a proprietary search algorithm that was based on word meanings and built upon an underlying lexicon called WordNet, which was developed over the previous 15 years by researchers at Princeton University, led by George Miller.[5]

Oingo changed its name to Applied Semantics in 2001,[6] which was later acquired by Google in April 2003 for US$102 million.[7]

In 2009, Google AdSense announced that it would now be offering new features, including the ability to "enable multiple networks to display ads".
[edit] Types
[edit] AdSense for Feeds

In May 2005, Google announced a limited-participation beta version of AdSense for Feeds, a version of AdSense that runs on RSS and Atom feeds that have more than 100 active subscribers. According to the Official Google Blog, "advertisers have their ads placed in the most appropriate feed articles; publishers are paid for their original content; readers see relevant advertising—and in the long run, more quality feeds to choose from."[8]

AdSense for Feeds works by inserting images into a feed. When the image is displayed by a RSS reader or Web browser, Google writes the advertising content into the image that it returns. The advertisement content is chosen based on the content of the feed surrounding the image. When the user clicks the image, he or she is redirected to the advertiser's website in the same way as regular AdSense advertisements.

AdSense for Feeds remained in its beta state until August 15, 2008, when it became available to all AdSense users.
[edit] AdSense for search

A companion to the regular AdSense program, AdSense for search, allows website owners to place Google search boxes on their websites. When a user searches the Internet or the website with the search box, Google shares 51% of the advertising revenue it makes from those searches with the website owner.[4] However the publisher is paid only if the advertisements on the page are clicked; AdSense does not pay publishers for mere searches.
[edit] AdSense for mobile content

AdSense for mobile content allows publishers to generate earnings from their mobile websites using targeted Google advertisements. Just like AdSense for content, Google matches advertisements to the content of a website — in this case, a mobile website. Instead of traditional JavaScript code, technologies such as PHP, ASP and others are used.
[edit] AdSense for domains

Adsense for domains allows advertisements to be placed on domain names that have not been developed. This offers domain name owners a way to monetize domain names that are otherwise dormant. Adsense for domains is currently being offered to some users, with plans to make it available to all in stages.

On December 12, 2008, TechCrunch reported that AdSense for Domains is available for all US publishers.[9]
[edit] AdSense for video

AdSense for video allows publishers with video content to generate revenue using ad placements from Google's extensive Advertising network including popular Youtube videos.[10]

google adsense

Google uses its Internet search technology to serve advertisements based on website content, the user's geographical location, and other factors. Those wanting to advertise with Google's targeted advertisement system may enroll through AdWords. AdSense has become a popular method of placing advertising on a website because the advertisements are less intrusive than most banners, and the content of the advertisements is often relevant to the website.

Many websites use AdSense to monetize their content; it is the most popular advertising network. AdSense has been particularly important for delivering advertising revenue to small websites that do not have the resources for developing advertising sales programs and sales people. To fill a website with advertisements that are relevant to the topics discussed, webmasters implement a brief script on the websites' pages. Websites that are content-rich have been very successful with this advertising program, as noted in a number of publisher case studies on the AdSense website.

Some webmasters invest significant effort into maximizing their own AdSense income. They do this in three ways:[citation needed]

They use a wide range of traffic-generating techniques, including but not limited to online advertising.
They build valuable content on their websites that attracts AdSense advertisements, which pay out the most when they are clicked.
They use text content on their websites that encourages visitors to click on advertisements. Note that Google prohibits webmasters from using phrases like "Click on my AdSense ads" to increase click rates. The phrases accepted are "Sponsored Links" and "Advertisements".

The source of all AdSense income is the AdWords program, which in turn has a complex pricing model based on a Vickrey second price auction. AdSense commands an advertiser to submit a sealed bid (i.e., a bid not observable by competitors). Additionally, for any given click received, advertisers only pay one bid increment above the second-highest bid. Google currently shares 68% of revenues generated by AdSense with content network partners.[4]
The theoretical groundwork

Konrad Zuse (pronounced [ˈkɔnʁat ˈtsuːzə] KON-rad TSUE-zuh. ; 22 June 1910 Berlin – 18 December 1995 Hünfeld near Fulda) was a German engineer and computer pioneer. His greatest achievement was the world's first functional program-controlled Turing-complete computer, the Z3, which became operational in May 1941. He received the Werner-von-Siemens-Ring in 1964 for the Z3.[1] Much of his early work was financed by his family and commerce, and he received little support from the Nazi-German Government.[2]

Zuse's S2 computing machine is considered to be the first process-controlled computer. In 1946 he designed the first high-level programming language, Plankalkül.[2] Zuse founded one of the earliest computer businesses on the 1st of April 1941 (Zuse Ingenieurbüro und Apparatebau).[3] This company built the Z4, which became the world's first commercial computer.

Due to World War II Zuse's work went largely unnoticed in the UK and the US. Possibly his first documented influence on a US company was IBM's option on his patents in 1946. In the late 1960s, Zuse suggested the concept of a Calculating Space (a computation-based universe).

There is a replica of the Z3, as well as the Z4, in the Deutsches Museum in Munich. The Deutsches Technikmuseum Berlin in Berlin has an exhibition devoted to Zuse, displaying twelve of his machines, including a replica of the Z1, some original documents, including the specifications of Plankalkül, and several of Zuse's paintings.

==Pre-WWII work and the Z1, the "mechanical brain"[4]

Zuse Z1 replica in the German Museum of Technology in BerlinBorn in Berlin, Germany in 1910, the family moved to Braunsberg, East Prussia in 1912, where his father was a postal clerk. Zuse attended the Collegium Hosianum in Braunsberg. In 1923 the family moved to Hoyerswerda where he passed his Abitur in 1928.

He enrolled in the Technische Hochschule Berlin-Charlottenburg and explored both engineering and architecture, but found them to be boring. Zuse then pursued civil engineering graduating in 1935. For a time he worked for the Ford motor company, using his considerable artistic skills in the design of advertisements.[2] He started work as a design engineer at the Henschel aircraft factory in Berlin-Schönefeld. This required the performance of many routine calculations by hand, which he found mind-numbingly boring, leading him to dream of performing calculations by machine.

Working in his parents' apartment in 1936, his first attempt, called the Z1, was a floating point binary mechanical calculator with limited programmability, reading instructions from a perforated 35 mm film.[2] In 1937 Zuse submitted two patents that anticipated a von Neumann architecture. He finished the Z1 in 1938. The Z1 contained some 30,000 metal parts and never worked well, due to insufficient mechanical precision. The Z1 and its original blueprints were destroyed during WWII.

Between 1987 and 1989, Zuse recreated the Z1, suffering a heart-attack midway through the project. It cost 800,000 DM, and required four individuals (including Zuse) to assemble it. Funding for this retrocomputing project was provided by Siemens and a consortium of five companies.

The mathematical foundations of modern computer science began to be laid by Kurt Gödel with his incompleteness theorem (1931). In this theorem, he showed that there were limits to what could be proved and disproved within a formal system. This led to work by Gödel and others to define and describe these formal systems, including concepts such as mu-recursive functions and lambda-definable functions.

1936 was a key year for computer science. Alan Turing and Alonzo Church independently, and also together, introduced the formalization of an algorithm, with limits on what can be computed, and a "purely mechanical" model for computing.

These topics are covered by what is now called the Church–Turing thesis, a hypothesis about the nature of mechanical calculation devices, such as electronic computers. The thesis claims that any calculation that is possible can be performed by an algorithm running on a computer, provided that sufficient time and storage space are available.

Turing also included with the thesis a description of the Turing machine. A Turing machine has an infinitely long tape and a read/write head that can move along the tape, changing the values along the way. Clearly such a machine could never be built, but nonetheless, the model can simulate the computation of any algorithm which can be performed on a modern computer.

Turing is so important to computer science that his name is also featured on the Turing Award and the Turing test. He contributed greatly to British code-breaking successes in the Second World War, and continued to design computers and software through the 1940s, but committed suicide in 1954.

At a symposium on large-scale digital machinery in Cambridge, Turing said, "We are trying to build a machine to do all kinds of different things simply by programming rather than by the addition of extra apparatus".

In 1948, the first practical computer that could run stored programs, based on the Turing machine model, had been built - the Manchester Baby.

In 1950, Britain's National Physical Laboratory completed Pilot ACE, a small scale programmable computer, based on Turing's philosophy.

birth of computer science

Birth of computer science

Before the 1920s, computers (sometimes computors') were human clerks that performed computations. They were usually under the lead of a physicist. Many thousands of computers were employed in commerce, government, and research establishments. Most of these computers were women, and they were known to have a degree in calculus. Some performed astronomical calculations for calendars.

After the 1920s, the expression computing machine referred to any machine that performed the work of a human computer, especially those in accordance with effective methods of the Church-Turing thesis. The thesis states that a mathematical method is effective if it could be set out as a list of instructions able to be followed by a human clerk with paper and pencil, for as long as necessary, and without ingenuity or insight.

Machines that computed with continuous values became known as the analog kind. They used machinery that represented continuous numeric quantities, like the angle of a shaft rotation or difference in electrical potential.

Digital machinery, in contrast to analog, were able to render a state of a numeric value and store each individual digit. Digital machinery used difference engines or relays before the invention of faster memory devices.

The phrase computing machine gradually gave away, after the late 1940s, to just computer as the onset of electronic digital machinery became common. These computers were able to perform the calculations that were performed by the previous human clerks.

Since the values stored by digital machines were not bound to physical properties like analog devices, a logical computer, based on digital equipment, was able to do anything that could be described "purely mechanical." The theoretical Turing Machine, created by Alan Turing, is a hypothetical device theorized in order to study the properties of such hardware.
See also: Philosophy of physics, Philosophy of biology, Philosophy of mathematics, Philosophy of language, and Philosophy of mind
The history of computer science began long before the modern discipline of computer science that emerged in the twentieth century, and hinted at in the centuries prior. The progression, from mechanical inventions and mathematical theories towards the modern concepts and machines, formed a major academic field and the basis of a massive worldwide industry.[1]Early computation
Main articles: History of computing and Timeline of computing 2400 BC–1949

The earliest known tool for use in computation was the abacus, and it was thought to have been invented in Babylon circa 2400 BCE. Its original style of usage was by lines drawn in sand with pebbles. This was the first known computer and most advanced system of calculation known to date - preceding Greek methods by 2,000 years. Abaci of a more modern design are still used as calculation tools today.

The Antikythera mechanism is believed to be the earliest known mechanical analog computer.[2] It was designed to calculate astronomical positions. It was discovered in 1901 in the Antikythera wreck off the Greek island of Antikythera, between Kythera and Crete, and has been dated to circa 100 BC. Technological artifacts of similar complexity did not reappear until the 14th century, when mechanical astronomical clocks appeared in Europe.[3]

In the 3rd century CE the South Pointing Chariot was invented in ancient China. It was the first known geared mechanism to use a differential gear, which was later used in analog computers. The Chinese also invented a more sophisticated abacus from around the 2nd century BCE, known as the Chinese abacus.[citation needed]

Mechanical analog computing devices appeared again a thousand years later in the medieval Islamic world. Examples of devices from this period include the equatorium by Arzachel,[4] the mechanical geared astrolabe by Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī,[5] and the torquetum by Jabir ibn Aflah.[6] Muslim engineers built a number of Automata, including some musical automata that could be 'programmed' to play different musical patterns. These devices were developed by the Banū Mūsā brothers[7] and Al-Jazari[8] Muslim mathematicians also made important advances in cryptography, such as the development of cryptanalysis and frequency analysis by Alkindus.[9]

When John Napier discovered logarithms for computational purposes in the early 17th century, there followed a period of considerable progress by inventors and scientists in making calculating tools. In 1623 Wilhelm Schickard designed a calculating machine, but abandoned the project, when the prototype he had started building was destroyed by a fire in 1624. Around 1640, Blaise Pascal, a leading French mathematician, constructed the first mechanical adding device[10] based on a design described by Greek mathematician Hero of Alexandria.[11] Then in 1672 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz invented the Stepped Reckoner which he completed in 1694.[12]

None of the early computational devices were really computers in the modern sense, and it took considerable advancement in mathematics and theory before the first modern computers could be designed.
[edit] Algorithms

In the 7th century, Indian mathematician Brahmagupta gave the first explanation of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system and the use of zero as both a placeholder and a decimal digit.

Approximately around the year 825, Persian mathematician Al-Khwarizmi wrote a book, On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals, that was principally responsible for the diffusion of the Indian system of numeration in the Middle East and then Europe. Around the 12th century, there was translation of this book written into Latin: Algoritmi de numero Indorum. These books presented newer concepts to perform a series of steps in order to accomplish a task such as the systematic application of arithmetic to algebra. By derivation from his name, we have the term algorithm.
[edit] Binary logic

Around the 3rd century BC, Indian mathematician Pingala discovered the binary numeral system. In this system, still used today in all modern computers, a sequence of ones and zeros can represent any number.

In 1703, Gottfried Leibnitz developed logic in a formal, mathematical sense with his writings on the binary numeral system. In his system, the ones and zeros also represent true and false values or on and off states. But it took more than a century before George Boole published his Boolean algebra in 1854 with a complete system that allowed computational processes to be mathematically modeled.

By this time, the first mechanical devices driven by a binary pattern had been invented. The industrial revolution had driven forward the mechanization of many tasks, and this included weaving. Punched cards controlled Joseph Marie Jacquard's loom in 1801, where a hole punched in the card indicated a binary one and an unpunched spot indicated a binary zero. Jacquard's loom was far from being a computer, but it did illustrate that machines could be driven by binary systems.

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